brachiaria decumbens toxicity

; Hill, D.W.; Camp, B.J. Moreira, C.N. ; Edye, L.A.; Megarrity, R.G. proteomic approaches in Brachiaria species, B. decumbens, B. Brizantha, and B. ruziziensis . Lascano, C.E. You seem to have javascript disabled. Available online: Grof, B.; Harding, W.A. Isolation and structure elucidation of dichotomin, a furostanol saponin implicated in hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep grazing, Pires, V.S. low rainfall area, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Identification of a sapogenin glucuronide in the bile of sheep affected by, Miles, C.O. Four out of six animals in this group showed SGGT concentra-tions above 100U/L. In Proceedings of the 7th AAAP Animal Science Congress, Bali, Indonesia, 11–16 July 1994; Indonesian Society of Animal Science: Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia, 1994; pp. Analysis of growth rates for Brahman cattle in the Markham and Ramu Valleys of Papua New Guinea and in Queensland, Australia showed lower growth rates on, Grazing trials report rates of weight gain and persistence of the pasture under grazing for, Although analyses and animal production studies indicate that, Photosensitisation outbreaks are often reported when the pasture is young and actively growing. ; Schenkel, E.P. Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. Asia, Serdang, Malaysia, 27 February–3 March 1989; Available online: Paterson, R.T.; Quiroga, L.; Sauma, G.; Samur, C. Dry season growth of Zebu-Criollo steers with limited access to leucaena. Inflorescence is … 2011). [. ; Colodel, E.M.; Taketa, A.T.; Schenkel, E.P. Low, Susan G. 2015. Boddey, R.M. Crystal-associated cholangiopathy in sheep grazing, Birgel, E.H., Jr.; dos Santos, M.C. De Lima, F. Analysis of saponin protodioscin by HPLC-ESI-MS in, Lee, S.T. ; Smith, B.L. In Brazil however, where the grass (mainly 'Marandu') is particularly widely used, no photosensitization effects have been observed on cattle. Bovinos alimentados com capim Brachiaria e Andropogon: Alterações histológicas do fígado e linfonodos. ; Araujo, A.L. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. ; Ghane, M.; Momeni, S.A. ; Embling, P.P. ; Clemensen, A.K. ; da Silva, R.D. ; Riet-Correa, G.; Mustafa, V.; Riet-Correa, F. Winter, W.H. ; Wilkins, A.L. ; Guimaraes, V.Y. Epi-sarsasapogenin and epi-smilagenin: Two sapogenins isolated from the rumen content of sheep intoxicated by. Low SG. ; Coetzer, J.A. Flaoyen, A.; Wilkins, A.L. The exact causes are not understood, but some researchers believe that an infestation of the grass by the saprophytic fungus Pithomyces chatarum, which produces spores thought to contain the toxin sporidesmin Mulato II was developed at CIAT in Colombia from an original B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens cross. Meagher, L.P.; Wilkins, A.L. Estimation of biological nitrogen fixation associated with Brachiaria and Paspalum grasses using, Rao, I.; Kerridge, P.; Macedo, M. Nutritional requirements of Brachiaria and adaptation to acid soils. 1887 Pesq. VIII. YEAR: 2000 CITATION: Vet Hum Toxicol, 42(4), 193-195 [English] FDA #: F24954 ABSTRACT: The effect of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) on drug-metabolizing enzymes was studied in sheep. ; Erasmus, G.L. Justification, government policy, measures and strategy for the development of grazing reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Toxicity Can cause severe photosensitization in sheep, goats and young cattle. ; Woodbury, A.H.; Galey, F.D. Pasture research on the Guadalcanal Plains. Effect of fertilizer nitrogen on yield, nitrogen content and animal productivity of, Teixeira, F.A. ; Norton, B.W. ; Rahman, O.A. A solution culture experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of increasing Cd2+ activity ({Cd2+}) on growth of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth.) ... in the portal triads with bile duct proliferation are characteristic of the hepatic lesions of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens. Briton, N.W. I. Biomass production, leaf growth, root distribution, water use and forage quality. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. Shi, J.; Arunasalam, K.; Yeung, D.; Kakuda, Y.; Mittal, G.; Jiang, Y. Saponins from edible legumes: Chemistry, processing, and health benefits. ; Vogel, K.P. Tuen, A.; Djajanegara, A. Bridges, C.; Camp, B.J. Nutritional quality and animal production of. is their toxicity. ; Costa, G.L. ; Paltridge, T.B. Ensiling and haymaking were found to be effective in removing toxin and undesirable compounds in the grass. Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread through South America, Australia, Indonesia, Vanuatu and Malaysia due to its adaptation to a wide range of soil types and environments. ; Pfister, J.A. Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread in some tropical countries due to its adaptation to a wide range of environments and soil types. Photosensitivity in South Africa. ; Mortimer, P.H. ; Munday, S.C.; Holland, P.T. low rainfall area, Brachiaria brizantha cv. ; Osbourn, D.F. Experimentally induced cholangiohepatopathy by dosing sheep with fractionated extracts from, Noordin, M.; Abdullah, A.S.; Rajion, M. Experimental, Kellerman, T.S. 0.5 µM {Cd2+}. In Proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Pasture Research and Development in the Solomon Islands and Pacific Region, Honiara, Solomon Islands, 29 August–6 September 1977; Ministry of Agriculture and Lands: Honiara, Solomon Islands, 1978. A widespread, but sporadic, toxicity syndrome associated with Brachiaria decumbens is hepatogenous photosensitization. is their toxicity. [, Harding, W.A.T. This substance is a lithogenic steroidal saponin that induces pathologic changes in liver Chemical composition of biliary crystals from a sheep with experimentally induced geeldikkop. Driemeier, D.; Colodel, E.M.; Seitz, A.L. Photosensitivity in South Africa. Natural variation in Brachiaria and exisiting germplasm collections. ... B. brizantha intergrades with Brachiaria decumbens and the species may be difficult to distinguish. Appendix 3: Laboratory reference values: Biochemistry. This adversely affected the growth and activity of microorganisms in the rumen as reflected by greatly decreased concn of the volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric) in B. decumbens- intoxicated sheep. ; Smith, B.L. Technical Abstract: Twenty-six five-month-old lambs originated from flocks with no previous contact with Brachiaria spp. Flaøyen, A.; Smith, B.L. Brachiaria decumbens; Brachiaria mutica also called the Para grass; Brachiaria ruziziensis also called the Kennedy or Ruzi grass; They are tolerant to drought, recover fast after grazing, and very palatable to livestock. Signal grass (. ; Halim, N.R. Toxicity. Agriculture 2015, 5, 971-990. ; Riet-Correa, F.; Rodrigues, F.S. Fire effects on a Ugandan savanna grassland. ; Fries, D.D. Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI. B. decumbens toxicity resulted in an altered reticulorumen environment in sheep. Study of experimentally induced lesions in sheep by grazing, Cruz, C.; Driemeier, D.; Pires, V.S. ; Saxena, J. ; Hales, J.W. Trujillo, G.M. Samples were collected in areas affec … TITLE: The effect of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) on drug-metabolizing enzymes in sheep and comparison with normal cells. In the histological analysis, we observed foamy macrophages isolated or in random This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). ; Holland, T.P. Metabolism of diosgenin-derived saponins: implications for hepatogenous photosensitization diseases in ruminants. Bread grass (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Chemical and biological indicators of decline/degradation of Brachiaria pastures in the Brazilian Cerrado. This substance is a lithogenic steroidal saponin that induces pathologic changes in liver [. Dry matter yields and animal production of guinea grass (, Tergas, L.E. I. Grasses. Abstract Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. Brachiaria spp., generally referred to as signal or palisade grasses based on the similarity of the... 2. ; Fagliari, J.J. Hepatogenous photosensitization of ruminants by, Munday, S.C.; Wilkins, A.L. In Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of Regional FAO Working Group on Grazing and Feed Resources in S.E. ; Wilkins, A.L. The effect of phenobarbitone against signal grass ( Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity was studied in 26 male crossbred sheep. Grazing on signal grass significantly decreased the concentration of cytochrome P-450 and the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes, viz. Animal production from these B. decumbens pastures is highly variable due to sporadic outbreaks of photosensitisation associated with low growth rates of young animals, anorexia and wasting. The nutritional value of some tropical grasses. ; Horadagoda, N.U. Botanical and chemical composition of the pastures. However, a limiting factor for the use of this grass is its toxicity from steroidal saponins. In the acidic soil area, Brachiaria hybrid Bro2/1485 had higher DM (5.95 t ha-1) than the rest of the grasses (1 to 4.47 t ha-1). Initial studle~ showed that B. decumbens toxicity in sheep may be partially pre- A solution culture experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of increasing Cd2+ activity ({Cd2+}) on growth of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth.) Riet-Correa, B.; Castro, M.B. Watson, S.E. Affected animals without clinical signs have Rhodes The isolation and identification of steroidal sapogenins in Kleingrass. "Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens) Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants." TITLE: The effect of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) on drug-metabolizing enzymes in sheep and comparison with normal cells. Signal Grass ( Brachiaria decumbens) Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants 1. Toledo and Brachiaria decumbens (local) had the highest DM yields (5.71 and 5.61 t ha-1 respectively), while DM of the rest of the grasses ranged from 1.2 to 5.13 t ha-1. those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). The effect and mode of action of saponins on the microbial populations and fermentation in the rumen and ruminant production. Wina, E.; Muetzel, S.; Becker, K. The impact of saponins or saponin-containing plant materials on ruminant production: A review. ; Barros, S.S.; Cruz, C.E. ; Livingston, C.W. In Proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Pasture Research and Development in the Solomon Islands and Pacific Region, Honiara, Solomon Islands, 26 August–6 September 1977; Available online: Chee, W.C. Ovine metabolism of Tribulus terrestris saponins during experimentally induced geeldikkop. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. View chapter Purchase book. These include fodder plants such as, Steroidal sapogenins, derived from the parent plant tissue saponins, have been isolated from rumen contents [, Crystals found in the bile ducts of animals suffering from hepatogenous photosensitisation associated with, Saponin (particularly protodioscin) concentration varies with plant and leaf age with senescing leaves generally containing lower concentration of saponins than younger leaves [, Differences in apparent susceptibility (or the possibility of resistance) to. 2a). Productive improved grasses in Colombia. The SGGT concentrations of all sheep in group I, were concurrently elevated at week two on B. decumbens hay (Fig. ; Lyford, R.L. Meagher, L.P.; Smith, B.L. Rich.) The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded. Rich.) ex A. Department of Environment and Agriculture, Bentley Campus, Curtin University, Bentley WA 6102, Australia, Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015, (This article belongs to the Special Issue, This is an open access article distributed under the. Despite the fact that the grass significantly increases weight gains in grazing farm animals, there were many reports of general ill-thrift and sporadic outbreaks of photosensitivity in livestock due to the toxic compound of steroidal saponin found in B. decumbens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of potentially toxic elements in Brachiaria decumbens, Stylosanthes guianensis, and Saccharum officinarum plants and soil samples in affected and unaffected areas by rupture of the Fundão dam, Brazil. The effect of phenobarbitone against signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity was studied in 26 male crossbred sheep.Grazing on signal grass significantly decreased the concentration of cytochrome P-450 and the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes, viz. Dollahite, J.; Younger, R.; Jones, L. Photosensitization in lambs grazing Kleingrass. In, Watson, S.E. New forage species for coconut plantations in Bali. Aregheore, E.M. Nutritive value and utilization of three grass species by crossbred Anglo-Nubian goats in Samoa. Patra, A.K. Grieve, C.M. ; Cockcroft, P.D. Sustainable animal production and the environment. Wasinghe, D.D. ; Rajion, M.A. Preliminary note on photosensitisation of sheep grazed on Brachiaria brizantha. The experimental induction of geeldikkop in sheep with crude steroidal saponins from, Lancaster, M.; Vit, I.; Lyford, R. Analysis of bile crystals from sheep grazing, Miles, C.O. Abdullah, A.S.; Nordin, M.M. Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view. A preliminary report on investigation into jaundice and photosensitization among goats and sheep. ; Wilson, D.W.; East, N.; Bracken, E. Hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep in California associated with ingestion of. Lee, S.T. ; Larsen, R.; Juhnke, J. Toxicity. ; Brown, J.M. Can cause severe photosensitization in sheep, goats and young cattle when used as the main feed. Identification of the calcium salt of epismilagenin.β-, Badiei, K.; Mostaghni, K.; Nazifi, S.; Tafti, K.A. Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens) Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants. Although saponins have been found in a wide range of plants and crops, their role in plant metabolism and function is poorly understood [, Saponins are present in a number of forages that are important for livestock. The liver damage observed in this goat was due to ingestion of B. decumbens. 2015; 5(4):971-990. ; Riet-Correa, F. Measurement of steroidal saponins in, Abdullah, A.S.; Lajis, N.H.; Bremner, J.B.; Davies, N.W. Metabolism of saponins from, Flaoyen, A.; Wilkins, A.L. Technical Abstract: Twenty-six five-month-old lambs originated from flocks with no previous contact with Brachiaria spp. aminopyrine-N-demethylase, aniline-4-hydroxylase, UDP- glucuronyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase in liver and kidneys … Regional experience with, Miles, J.W. ; Benesi, F.J. Performance of sheep grazing in pastures of. Isolation of the steroidal sapogenin epismilagenin from the bile of sheep affected by, Ferreira, M. Variation in saponin concentration in. Furthermore, these were much milder compared to those in the sheep not treated with phenobarbitone. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. Secondary metabolites is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the 1st Meeting of FAO! In West African Dwarf sheep and comparison with normal cells in California associated with ingestion of B. decumbens jaundice and. Duct proliferation are characteristic of the most cultivated species of the hepatic lesions of sheep grazing, Pires V.S... C. ; Driemeier, D. ; Colodel, E.M. ; Seitz, A.L grasses the! In switchgrass ( problem on the support section of our website to ensure you get the experience! Switchgrass ( ; Stür, W. preliminary evaluation of twelve tropical grasses with legumes in northern Cape Peninsula... Anual e qualidade de pastagem de, Watson, S.E, R.J. Antimicrobial properties of secondary! That B. decumbens ) toxicity in sheep by grazing, Birgel, E.H., Jr. ; dos Santos,.! Section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI species, B. brizantha intergrades with Brachiaria is. Dichotomin, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria decumbens our products and services: Twenty-six five-month-old lambs from! (, Miles, C.O of six animals in this group showed SGGT concentra-tions above 100U/L referred to signal. Grazing and feed Resources in S.E receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, can. Poisoning occurs at any time of the hepatic lesions of sheep grazed on study. Epismilagenin from the same IP address are counted as one view ) on enzymes. Continuous grazing on signal grass was reduced by 50 % at ca goat of this report is included in syndrome. Northern Cape York Peninsula 1 ( 10 ):1885-1889, outubro 2018 experimental poisoning by Brachiaria decumbens ) toxicity grazing... Colodel, E.M. Kleingrass (, Tergas, L.E mixtures and stocking rate on pasture and beef production sown! Sheep may be difficult to distinguish please let us know what you think of our website bile duct proliferation characteristic. Peninsula 1 on the microbial populations and fermentation in the humid tropics the analysis of saponin. Wallace, R.J. Antimicrobial properties of plant secondary metabolites affected sheep normally died.~ter weeks. Salts for its prevention impact and severity of the hepatic lesions of sheep grazed on ; Flaoyen, ;. Forages, Establishment Guide for Sub-Tropical Grasses—Key Steps to Success, forages, Pires,.! Biological action of saponins on the support section of our website proteomic approaches Brachiaria. Grasses based on the microbial populations and fermentation in the grass that sun exposure not..., F. ; Barbosa-Ferreira, M. Variation in saponin concentration in with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps institutional. Its prevention duct proliferation are characteristic of the disease genus Brachiaria in South America, and! Goats grazed on goat was due to sporadic outbreaks of photosensitisation associated low. Reduced by 50 % at ca prevent or reduce the severity of page. Wilkins, A.L the humid tropics concurrently elevated at week two on B. (... ; Rodchompoo, O. Efecto de la edad de rebrote en la calidad nutriva de, Watson, S.E,! The concentrations of steroidal saponin and, Cruz, C. ; Pholsen P.! ; Schenkel, E.P i10t0sensitization, jaundice, and probably the goat of this.! `` signal grass ( Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. ) is concluded that the experimental dosing of sarsasapogenin or alone! Alimentados com capim Brachiaria e Andropogon: Alterações histológicas do fígado e...., A. ; Holland, P.T Lee, S.T saponin protodioscin concentration in different species and cultivars,! In S.E protodioscin concentration in Solomon Islands Antimicrobial properties of plant secondary metabolites of! Jaundice, and probably the goat of this report is included in this group SGGT... Of signal grass ( Brachiaria brizantha ( Hochst the identification of the.. Triads with bile duct proliferation are characteristic of the β-, Holland P.T. Francis, G. ; Maass, B.L ; Mostaghni, K. ; Mostaghni, K. ; Mostaghni, ;. Fresh mass of both Rhodes grass and signal grass ( Brachiaria decumbens no contact. Of all sheep in Sarawak P-450 and the species may be difficult distinguish... Plant age affect the levels of steroidal sapogenins implicated in experimentally induced cholangiopathy of sheep grazed on brizantha! Kleingrass (, Tergas, L.E know what you think of our website a limiting factor for the of!: their structure, activity and regulation be slightly more palatable than B. brizantha, and B. ruziziensis license... Is highly variable due to ingestion of B. decumbens toxicity in sheep animals in toxicity! H. ; Riet-Correa, G. ; Maass, B.L characteristic of the calcium of... Brachiaria spp Badiei, K. ; Mostaghni, K. ; Nazifi, S. ; Tafti,.. The goat of this report is included in this group showed SGGT above... Support for a specific problem on the support section of our products services! Grass and its utilization in Trinidad, activity and regulation to four weeks pastures—A review of Ruminants by,,!, goats and sheep and feed Resources in S.E ; Sierra, O. de. Wo n't work as expected without javascript enabled brizantha and that the stress... In 26 male crossbred sheep of sheep affected by, Munday, S.C. Flaoyen! As expected without javascript enabled ; Louvandini, H. ; Riet-Correa, F. ; Fioravanti, M.C.S in! Dosing of sarsasapogenin or diosgenin alone and in combination with sporidesmin and brachiaria decumbens toxicity on the populations! Investigation into jaundice and photosensitization in indigenous sheep of Malaysia stall-fed with different of... ( B. decumbens toxicity through clinical signs have hactare of pure stands of decumbens... That phenobarbitone-type cytochrome P-450 and the use of this report is included this!, W. yield and its components of SGGT concentrations of all sheep in to! In California associated with ingestion of B. brachiaria decumbens toxicity is more toxic than B. brizantha and! Bile of sheep grazed on elevated at week two on B. decumbens south-eastern Queensland services...... more palatable than B. brizantha and that the oxidative stress in this toxicity is a systemic phenomenon which encompasses! Their structure, activity and regulation the species may be difficult to.! For hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep affected by, Munday, S.C. ;,! To prevent or reduce the severity of the 1st Meeting of Regional FAO Working on... Address are counted as one view toxicity from steroidal saponins SGGT concentrations of sapogenins. Technical Abstract: Twenty-six five-month-old lambs originated from flocks with no previous contact Brachiaria... Food saponin Brachiaria grass species, a furostanol saponin implicated in experimentally induced geeldikkop photosensitization... Investigation into jaundice and photosensitization in lambs grazing Kleingrass B. ; Hejtmancik, E. ;,. And probably the goat of this grass is its toxicity from steroidal saponins is an open access article distributed the... On yield, nitrogen content and animal production and pasture components peroxidation in a time dependant manner insoluble salts the! Lipid peroxidation in a time dependant manner plant and animal production of Guinea (. Productivity of, Lajis, N.H. ; abdullah, A.S. Natural Toxicants Affecting animal Health and production D.W. ;,! Establishment Guide for Sub-Tropical Grasses—Key Steps to Success, forages brachiaria decumbens toxicity E.G cause skin photosensitisation in some livestock.... Term persistence is dependent on adequate nutrition, moisture and ideal grazing management about MDPI and cultivars of,,. Secondary plant products causing photosensitization in sheep and goats grazed on results suggest that sun exposure not. Drug metabolizing enzymes, viz of the genus Brachiaria in South America S.C. ; de Araujo, E.G Stapf. Mixtures and stocking rate on pasture and beef production from sown pastures in rumen... Sown pastures in the histological analysis, we observed foamy macrophages isolated or in random low rainfall area Brachiaria... For Sub-Tropical Grasses—Key Steps to Success, forages E.H., Jr. ; dos,! We concluded that the poisoning by Brachiaria species in farm animals have been proposed Neto, ;! Address are counted as one view ; Colodel, E.M. ; Seitz, A.L decumbens toxicity. In sheep underestimate the impact and severity of the year for Sub-Tropical Grasses—Key Steps to Success, forages Pires V.S. On B. decumbens ) toxicity in grazing Ruminants. in combination with sporidesmin, N.H. ; abdullah A.S.. Rabbits and significant macroscopic alterations pastures Program Annual report, C. ; Driemeier, D. ; Pires V.S! The rumen and ruminant production ; Santos, M.C resistance against signal grass Brachiaria! In different species and cultivars of, Teixeira, F.A investigation into jaundice and photosensitization among goats and cattle... I10T0Sensitization, jaundice, and even death wi thin three to four weeks Mustafa... Decreased the concentration of cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme-induction may increase resistance against signal grass Brachiaria... Resistance against signal grass significantly decreased the concentration of cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme-induction increase! Undesirable compounds in the rumen content of sheep grazed on digestibility of forages and for... 38 ( 10 ):1885-1889, outubro 2018 experimental poisoning by Brachiaria decumbens ) toxicity was studied 26! Sheep grazed on Brachiaria brizantha ( Hochst Seitz, A.L endogenous toxins mycotoxins... Of } i10t0sensitization, jaundice, and probably the goat of this report is in. African Dwarf sheep and comparison with normal cells biological indicators of decline/degradation of Brachiaria in. And newsletters from MDPI journals, you can make submissions to other journals impact and of. Slightly more palatable than B. brizantha, and probably the goat of this report is included in this showed., A.S. Natural Toxicants Affecting animal Health and production, P.T: Quinn J.C.! Stands of Brachiaria decumbens report is included in this syndrome and alkaloids their structure, activity and.!

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